11.1.1 Proportion of Urban Population Living in Slums
Target 11.1: By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Custodian Organization:United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)
Tier Classification: Tier I
To facilitate the implementation of the global indicator framework, all indicators are classified by the IAEG-SDGs (Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goals Indicators) into three tiers on the basis of their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level, as follows:
Tier I: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.
Tier II: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data are not regularly produced by countries.
Tier III: No internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.
Definition and concept: As per the 2030 Agenda, to guide the development of the appropriate policies and programmes for ensuring access for all to adequate housing and the upgrading of slums, it is necessary to identify and quantify the proportion of the population that live in slums, informal settlements and those living in inadequate housing.
Rationale: As seen in Table 1, most of the criteria for defining slums, informal settlements and inadequate housing overlap. The three criteria of informal settlements are essentially captured in the definition of slums, which sustains the combination of both (slums/informal settlements). From the seven criteria of adequate housing, the three that are not covered by slums / informal settlements are affordability, accessibility and cultural adequacy. For the purpose of composing an indicator, affordability is the most relevant and easier to measure.
Thus, in order to come up with a composite indicator, the metadata for the SDG Indicator 11.1.1 is proposing to group the definition of slums and informal settlements, to allow for comparison with MDGs, and add the element of affordability from the definition of adequate housing.
In this regard, housing affordability is not only a key housing adequacy criterion, but is a suitable means of measuring inadequate housing in a more encompassing manner, as it remains a global challenge across different countries and income levels, with strong negative impact on urban inequality. The underlying principle is that household financial costs associated with housing should not threaten or compromise the attainment and satisfaction of other basic needs such as, food, education, access to health care, transport, etc. Based on the existing method and data of UN-Habitat’s Urban Indicators Program (19962006), unaffordability is currently measured as the net monthly expenditure on housing cost that exceeds 30% of the total monthly income of the household. Thus, Indicator 11.1.1 is expected to be a composite one, with the main components of slum/informal settlements’ and the added component of affordability defining inadequate housing. Table 1 details the proposed definition of Slum/Informal Settlements and Inadequate Housing as well as the respective measurements.
Limitations: As with all indicators, there are a number of potential challenges and limitations. Some of these are outlined below.
- Difficulties to agree universally on some definitions and characteristics when referring to deteriorated housing conditions, often due to political or economic considerations.
- Lack of appropriate tools at national and city levels to measure all components required by Indicator 11.1.1, sometimes resulting in the underestimation of deteriorated housing units.
- The complicated relation between security of tenure with land and property makes it a difficult, but vital, aspect to include in the different surveys, and thus, to measure and monitor.
- Indicator 11.1.1 does not capture homelessness.
- Many countries still have limited capacities for data collection, management and analysis, their update and monitoring. These are key to ensure national and global data consistency.
Data Source: Data for this indicator was primarily collected from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Open SDG Data Hub. National level data from the UN Statistics Division is compiled by the respective custodian for the SDG indicator, unless otherwise noted. To learn more about the data used in this portal, visit the about page.
Data is accurate as of October 31, 2018.
11.1.1 Proportion of Urban Population Living in Slums in the Sustainable Development Goals
Click on the SDG to reveal more information
11. Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Cities are hubs for ideas, commerce, culture, science, productivity, social development and much more. At their best, cities have enabled people to advance socially and economically.
However, many challenges exist to maintaining cities in a way that continues to create jobs and prosperity while not straining land and resources. Common urban challenges include congestion, lack of funds to provide basic services, a shortage of adequate housing and declining infrastructure.
The challenges cities face can be overcome in ways that allow them to continue to thrive and grow, while improving resource use and reducing pollution and poverty. The future we want includes cities of opportunities for all, with access to basic services, energy, housing, transportation and more.
Related 11.1.1 Proportion of Urban Population Living in Slums Targets
By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums