14.a.1 National Ocean Science Expenditure as a Share of Total Research and Development Funding
Target 14.a: Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries
Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
Custodian Organization: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO
Tier Classification: Tier I
To facilitate the implementation of the global indicator framework, all indicators are classified by the IAEG-SDGs (Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goals Indicators) into three tiers on the basis of their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level, as follows:
Tier I: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.
Tier II: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data are not regularly produced by countries.
Tier III: No internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.
Definition: Definitions and mechanisms used in the development of the SDG indicator 14.a.1 are based on the IOC Criteria and Guidelines on Transfer of Marine Technology- IOCCGTMT (originally published and endorsed by IOC Member States in 2005, these guidelines provide an internationally agreed definition of what is understood by the term marine technology. These Guidelines have been referenced in various UN General Assembly Resolutions and specifically in the formulation of SDG target 14.a). These are further explained in the Global Ocean Science Report (GOSR) referenced below.
Marine technology as defined in the IOCCGTMT refers to instruments, equipment, vessels, processes and methodologies required to produce and use knowledge to improve the study and understanding of the nature and resources of the ocean and coastal areas. Toward this end, marine technology may include any of the following components: a) Information and data, in a user-friendly format, on marine sciences and related marine operations and services; b) Manuals, guidelines, criteria, standards, reference materials; c) Sampling and methodology equipment (e.g., for water, geological, biological, chemical samples); d) Observation facilities and equipment (e.g. remote sensing equipment, buoys, tide gauges, shipboard and other means of ocean observation); e) Equipment for in situ and laboratory observations, analysis and experimentation; f) Computer and computer software, including models and modelling techniques; g) Expertise, knowledge, skills, technical/scientific/legal know-how and analytical methods related to marine scientific research and observation.
Indicator 14.a.1 shows the annual national research budget allocated by governments in the field of marine technology, relative to the overall national governmental research and development budget in general.
Unit: percentage; raw data in national currency. The proportion can be calculated, and if needed, data can be converted by the international agency into USD.
Concepts: The concepts used for the definition and calculation of the indicator 14.a.1 are based on similar concepts used in the UNESCO Science Report (2010, 2015).These reports present GERD data (gross domestic expenditure on research and experimental development) as a share of GDP (gross domestic product) and further provide the R&D (research and development) expenditure by sector of performance in % (Table S2 in the 2015 report). In addition UIS publishes science field specific R&D, e.g. natural science.
The definitions and classifications used to collect R&D data are based on the ‘Frascati Manaual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development’ (OECD).
Rationale: Sustained investment in research and development (R&D), including ocean research, remains essential to advance knowledge and to develop new technology needed to support modern economies. The ocean economy yields various benefits in terms of employment, revenues and innovation in many domains. Its current developments are largely based on decades of science and R&D investments by governments around the world. Baseline information on ocean science funding, as delivered by the indicator 14.a.1 can be used as a starting point for more directed, tailored investment and new capacity development strategies, and to support the case for ensuring maximum impact of ocean research, for example through marine technology and knowledge transfer from government-funded marine and maritime R&D projects. Annual (2009-2013) baseline information for 24 countries is presented in the GOSR (Isensee, K., Horn, L. and Schaaper, M. 2017. The funding for ocean science. In: In: IOC UNESCO, Global Ocean Science Report—The current status of ocean science around the world. L. Valdés et al. (eds). Paris, UNESCO, pp. 80–97).
Limitations: Due to the fact that no agreed mechanism to assess ocean science capacity existed until the first edition of the Global Ocean Science Report, national reporting mechanisms are scarce and/or are not harmonised. However, with the framework of 14.a and the new reporting mechanism in place, global and regional technology and knowledge transfer can be conducted in a resource- and need-adapted manner based on global inventories and comparisons.
Data Source: Data for this indicator was primarily collected from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Open SDG Data Hub. National level data from the UN Statistics Division is compiled by the respective custodian for the SDG indicator, unless otherwise noted. To learn more about the data used in this portal, visit the about page.
Data is accurate as of October 31, 2018.
14.a.1 National Ocean Science Expenditure as a Share of Total Research and Development Funding Sustainable Development Goals
14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources
The world’s oceans – their temperature, chemistry, currents and life – drive global systems that make the Earth habitable for humankind.
Our rainwater, drinking water, weather, climate, coastlines, much of our food, and even the oxygen in the air we breathe, are all ultimately provided and regulated by the sea. Throughout history, oceans and seas have been vital conduits for trade and transportation.
Careful management of this essential global resource is a key feature of a sustainable future.