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16.1.1 Victims of Intentional Homicide

Target 16.1: Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Custodian Organization: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

Tier Classification: Tier I

To facilitate the implementation of the global indicator framework, all indicators are classified by the IAEG-SDGs (Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goals Indicators) into three tiers on the basis of their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level, as follows:

Tier I: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.

Tier II: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data are not regularly produced by countries.

Tier III: No internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.

Source: United Nations Statistical Division

Definition: The indicator is defined as the total count of victims of intentional homicide divided by the total population, expressed per 100,000 population.
Intentional homicide is defined as the unlawful death inflicted upon a person with the intent to cause
death or serious injury (Source: International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes, ICCS 2015); population refers to total resident population in a given country in a given year.
Concepts: In the ICCS intentional homicide is defined as the ‘‘Unlawful death inflicted upon a person with the intent to cause death or serious injury”. This definition contains three elements characterizing the killing of a person as intentional homicide:
  1. The killing of a person by another person (objective element);
  2. The intent of the perpetrator to kill or seriously injure the victim (subjective element);
  3. The unlawfulness of the killing, which means that the law considers the perpetrator liable for the unlawful death (legal element).
This definition states that, for statistical purposes, all killings corresponding to the three criteria above should be considered as intentional homicides, irrespective of definitions provided by national legislation or practices.


Rationale:
This indicator is widely used at national and international level to measure the most extreme form of violent crime and it also provides a direct indication of lack of security. Security from violence is a prerequisite for individuals to enjoy a safe and active life and for societies and economies to develop freely. Intentional homicides occur in all countries of the world and this indicator has a global applicability.

Monitoring intentional homicides is necessary to better assess their causes, drivers and consequences and, in the longer term, to develop effective preventive measures. If data are properly disaggregated (as suggested in the ICCS), the indicator can identify the different type of violence associated with homicide: inter-personal (including partner and family-related violence), crime (including organized crime and other forms of criminal activities) and socio-political (including terrorism, hate crime).

Limitations: The ICCS provides important clarifications on the definition of intentional homicide. In particular, it states that the following killings are included in the count of homicide:

  • Murder
  • Honour killing
  • Serious assault leading to death
  • Death as a result of terrorist activities
  • Dowry-related killings
  • Femicide
  • Infanticide
  • Voluntary manslaughter
  • Extrajudicial killings
  • Killings caused by excessive force by law enforcement/state officials

Furthermore, the ICCS provides indications on how to distinguish between intentional homicides, killings directly related to war/conflict and other killings that amount to war crimes.

The fact that homicide data are typically produced by two separate and independent sources at national level (criminal justice and public health) represents a specific asset of this indicator, as the comparison of the two sources is a tool to assess accuracy of national data. Usually, for countries where data from both sources exist, a good level of matching between the sources is recorded (see UNODC Global Study on Homicide, 2013).

Data on homicides produced by public health authorities are guided by the International classification of diseases (ICD-10), which provides a definition of ‘Death by assault’ that is very close to the definition of intentional homicide of the ICCS

Source: United Nations Statistical Division

Data Source: Data for this indicator was primarily collected from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Open SDG Data Hub. National level data is provided to the United Nations Statistics Division by the respective nation, unless otherwise noted. To learn more about the data used in this portal, visit the about page.

Data is accurate as of October 31, 2018.

 

 

16.1.1 Victims of Intentional Homicide

 
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16.1.1 Victims of Intentional Homicide Sustainable Development Goals

16. Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies
16. Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies

16. Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies

Goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals is dedicated to the promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, the provision of access to justice for all, and building effective, accountable institutions at all levels.

Related 16.1.1 Victims of Intentional Homicide Targets

16.1

Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere