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16.5.2 Proportion of Firms Experiencing at Least One Bribe Payment Request

Target 16.5: Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms

Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Custodian Organization: World Bank (WB)

Tier Classification: Tier II

To facilitate the implementation of the global indicator framework, all indicators are classified by the IAEG-SDGs (Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goals Indicators) into three tiers on the basis of their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level, as follows:

Tier I: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.

Tier II: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data are not regularly produced by countries.

Tier III: No internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.

Source: United Nations Statistical Division

Definition: Proportion of firms asked for a gift or informal payment when meeting with tax officials.
In every Enterprise Survey, there is a standard question which asks the survey respondent if they were inspected by or required to meet with tax officials. If the respondent indicates ‘yes’, then there is a follow-up question which asks if the respondent was expected to provide a gift or an informal payment during these inspections/meetings. The response options include “yes”, “no”, “don’t know”, and “refuse”.
Enterprise Surveys are firm-level surveys conducted in World Bank client countries. The survey focuses on various aspects of the business environment as well as firm’s outcome measures such as annual sales, productivity, etc. The surveys are conducted via face-to-face interviews with the top manager or business owner. For each country, the survey is conducted approximately every 4-5 years.
Concepts: The respondents to the Enterprise Survey are firms-either manufacturing or services establishments. These are registered (formal) firms with 5+ employees. The firms are either fully or partially private (100% state-owned firms are ineligible for the Enterprise Survey).
A gift or an informal payment is considered a ‘bribe’.

Rationale: The rationale for this indicator is to ascertain whether firms are solicited for gifts or informal payments (i.e. bribes) when meeting with tax officials. Paying taxes are required of formal forms in most countries and hence the rational for this indicator is to measure the incidence of corruption during this routine interaction. The key strength of the Enterprise Survey is that most of the questions in the survey pertain to the actual, day-to-day experiences of the firm; this question regarding corruption during tax inspections/meetings is not an opinion-based question but rather a question grounded in the firm’s reality.

Limitations: The respondents to the Enterprise Survey are firms- either manufacturing or services establishments. These are registered (formal) firms with 5+ employees. The firms are either fully or partially private (100% state-owned firms are ineligible for the Enterprise Survey).

A gift or an informal payment is considered a ‘bribe’.

Source: United Nations Statistical Division

Data Source: Data for this indicator was primarily collected from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Open SDG Data Hub. National level data is provided to the United Nations Statistics Division by the respective nation, unless otherwise noted. To learn more about the data used in this portal, visit the about page.

Data is accurate as of October 31, 2018.

 
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16.5.2 Proportion of Firms Experiencing at Least One Bribe Payment Request Sustainable Development Goals

16. Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies
16. Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies

16. Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies

Goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals is dedicated to the promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, the provision of access to justice for all, and building effective, accountable institutions at all levels.

Related 16.5.2 Proportion of Firms Experiencing at Least One Bribe Payment RequestTargets

16.5

Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms