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3.9.1 Mortality Rate Attributed to Ambient Air Pollution

Target 3.9: By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination

Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Custodian Organization: World Health Organization (WHO)

Tier Classification: Tier I

To facilitate the implementation of the global indicator framework, all indicators are classified by the IAEG-SDGs (Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goals Indicators) into three tiers on the basis of their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level, as follows:

Tier I: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.

Tier II: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data are not regularly produced by countries.

Tier III: No internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.

Source: United Nations Statistical Division

Definition: The mortality attributable to the joint effects of household and ambient air pollution can be expressed as: Number of deaths, Death rate. Death rates are calculated by dividing the number of deaths by the total population (or indicated if a different population group is used, e.g. children under 5 years).

Evidence from epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to air pollution is linked, among others, to the important diseases taken into account in this estimate:

Acute respiratory infections in young children (estimated under 5 years of age); – Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke) in adults (estimated above 25 years); – Ischaemic heart diseases (IHD) in adults (estimated above 25 years); – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults (estimated above 25 years); and – Lung cancer in adults (estimated above 25 years).

Concepts: The mortality resulting from exposure to ambient (outdoor) air pollution and household (indoor) air pollution from polluting fuels use for cooking was assessed. Ambient air pollution results from emissions from industrial activity, households, cars and trucks which are complex mixtures of air pollutants, many of which are harmful to health. Of all of these pollutants, fine particulate matter has the greatest effect on human health. By polluting fuels is understood kerosene, wood, coal, animal dung, charcoal, and crop wastes.

Rationale: As part of a broader project to assess major risk factors to health, the mortality resulting from exposure to ambient (outdoor) air pollution and household (indoor) air pollution from polluting fuel use for cooking was assessed. Ambient air pollution results from emissions from industrial activity, households, cars and trucks which are complex mixtures of air pollutants, many of which are harmful to health. Of all of these pollutants, fine particulate matter has the greatest effect on human health. Polluting fuels include wood, coal, animal dung, charcoal, and crop wastes, as well as kerosene. Air pollution is the biggest environmental risk to health. The majority of the burden is borne by the populations in low and middle-income countries.

Limitations: An approximation of the combined effects of risk factors is possible if independence and little correlation between risk factors with impacts on the same diseases can be assumed (Ezzati et al, 2003). In the case of air pollution, however, there are some limitations to estimate the joint effects: limited knowledge on the distribution of the population exposed to both household and ambient air pollution, correlation of exposures at individual level as household air pollution is a contributor to ambient air pollution, and nonlinear interactions (Lim et al, 2012; Smith et al, 2014). In several regions, however, household air pollution remains mainly a rural issue, while ambient air pollution is predominantly an urban problem. Also, in some continents, many countries are relatively unaffected by household air pollution, while ambient air pollution is a major concern. If assuming independence and little correlation, a rough estimate of the total impact can be calculated, which is less than the sum of the impact of the two risk factors.

Source: United Nations Statistical Division

Data Source: Data for this indicator was primarily collected from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Open SDG Data Hub. National level data from the UN Statistics Division is compiled by the respective custodian for the SDG indicator, unless otherwise noted. To learn more about the data used in this portal, visit the about page.

Data is accurate as of October 31, 2018.

3.9.1 Mortality Rate Attributed to Ambient Air Pollution

 
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3.9.1 Mortality Rate Attributed to Ambient Air Pollution Sustainable Development Goals

3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Ensuring healthy lives and promoting the well-being for all at all ages is essential to sustainable development. Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common killers associated with child and maternal mortality. Major progress has been made on increasing access to clean water and sanitation, reducing malaria, tuberculosis, polio and the spread of HIV/AIDS. However, many more efforts are needed to fully eradicate a wide range of diseases and address many different persistent and emerging health issues.

Related 3.9.1 Mortality Rate Attributed to Ambient Air Pollution Targets

3.9

By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination