5.c.1 Proportion of Nations with Systems to Track and Make Public Allocations for Gender Equity and Women’s Empowerment
Target 5.c: Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels
Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
Custodian Organization: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Tier Classification: Tier II
To facilitate the implementation of the global indicator framework, all indicators are classified by the IAEG-SDGs (Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goals Indicators) into three tiers on the basis of their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level, as follows:
Tier I: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.
Tier II: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data are not regularly produced by countries.
Tier III: No internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.
Definition: Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Indicator 5.c.1 seeks to measure government efforts to track budget allocations for gender equality throughout the public finance management cycle and to make these publicly available. This is an indicator of characteristics of the fiscal system. It is not an indicator of quantity or quality of finance allocated for gender equality and women’s empowerment (GEWE). The indicator measures three criteria. The first focuses on the intent of a government to address GEWE by identifying if it has programs/policies and resource allocations to foster GEWE. The second assesses if a government has planning and budget tools to track resources for GEWE throughout the public financial management cycle. The third focuses on transparency by identifying if a government has provisions to make allocations for GEWE publicly available.
The indicator aims to encourage national governments to develop appropriate budget tracking and monitoring systems and commit to making information about allocations for gender equality readily available to the public. The system should be led by the Ministry of Finance in collaboration with the sectoral ministries and National Women’s Machineries and overseen by an appropriate body such as Parliament or Public Auditors.
Rationale: Adequate and effective financing is essential to achieve SDG 5 and the gender related targets across the SDG framework. By tracking and making public gender equality allocations, governments promote greater transparency in and hence this could result in better accountability. The indicator encourages governments to put in place a system to track and make public resource allocations which can then inform policy review, better policy formulation and more effective public financial management.
The principle of adequate financing for gender equality is rooted in the Beijing Declaration and Platform of Action (para 345 and 346) adopted in 1995. However, the Secretary General’s report on the twenty-year review and appraisal of the Platform for Action found that underinvestment in gender equality and women’s empowerment has contributed to slow and uneven progress in all 12 critical areas of concern. Inadequate financing hinders the implementation of gender responsive laws and policies. Data shows that financing gaps are sometimes a high as 90% with critical shortfalls in infrastructure, productive and economic sectors.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Agenda commits to a “significant increase in investments to close the gender gap.” Ensuring requisite resources for gender equality is central to implementing and achieving SDG 5 and all gender targets across the framework. Tracking these allocations and making the data publicly available are important steps to assess progress towards meeting these goals. This has been reaffirmed at the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, where member states adopted the Addis Ababa Action Agenda which commits to track gender equality allocations and increase transparency on public spending.1 Furthermore, the Commission on the Status of Women at its 60th session called upon states to support and institutionalize gender-responsive budgeting and tracking across all sectors of public expenditure to address gaps in resourcing for gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.
Indicator 5.c.1 will measure the percentage of governments with systems to track and make public resource allocations for gender equality. It builds on Indicator 8 of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation that has been piloted, tested and rolled out in 81 countries. Indicator 8 allowed, for the first time, the systematic collection of data on government efforts to track resource allocations for gender equality across countries. Indicator 5.c.1 is defined in almost identical terms to Indicator 8 of the GPEDC. In addition, Indicator 5.c.1 is the only indicator in the SDG monitoring framework that links national budgeting systems with implementation of legislation and policies for gender equality and women’s empowerment. The refined methodology for Indicator 5.c.1 is an improvement over the original methodology for Indicator 8. The increased specificity of the criteria provides a greater level of detail and therefore, captures the variability in countries’ gender equality policies and public financial management systems. The application of a tiered scoring approach with specific thresholds increases the indicator’s rigor and gives incentive to countries to improve these systems over time.
Further, it is envisaged that the OECD Survey of Budget Practices and Procedures, conducted regularly among OECD countries, will be modified and updated to align closely with Indicator 5.c.1. This will allow greater global coverage by strengthening the indicator’s relevance to ministries of finance in all countries
Concepts: To determine if a country has a system to track and make public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment, the following questionnaire will be sent to its Ministry of Finance, or agency in charge of the government budget:
Criterion 1. Which of the following aspects of public expenditure are reflected in your government programs and its resource allocations? (In the last completed fiscal year)
Question 1.1. Are there policies and/or programs of the government designed to address wellidentified gender equality goals, including those where gender equality is not the primary objective (such as public services, social protection and infrastructure) but incorporate action to close gender gaps? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 1.2. Do these policies and/or programs have adequate resources allocated within the budget, sufficient to meet both their general objectives and their gender equality goals? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 1.3. Are there procedures in place to ensure that these resources are executed according to the budget? (Yes=1/No=0)
Criterion 2. To what extent does your Public Financial Management system promote gender-related or gender-responsive goals? (In the last completed fiscal year)
Question 2.1. Does the Ministry of Finance/budget office issue call circulars, or other such directives, that provide specific guidance on gender-responsive budget allocations? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 2.2. Are key policies and programs, proposed for inclusion in the budget, subject to an ex ante gender impact assessment? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 2.3. Are sex-disaggregated statistics and data used across key policies and programs in a way which can inform budget-related policy decisions? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 2.4. Does the government provide, in the context of the budget, a clear statement of gender-related objectives (i.e. gender budget statement or gender responsive budget legislation)? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 2.5. Are budgetary allocations subject to “tagging” including by functional classifiers, to identify their linkage to gender-equality objectives? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 2.6. Are key policies and programs subject to ex post gender impact assessment? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 2.7. Is the budget as a whole subject to independent audit to assess the extent to which it promotes gender-responsive policies? (Yes=1/No=0)
Criterion 3. Are allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment made public? (In the last completed fiscal year)
Question 3.1. Is the data on gender equality allocations published? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 3.2. If published, has this data been published in an accessible manner on the Ministry of Finance (or office responsible for budget) website and/or related official bulletins or public notices? (Yes=1/No=0)
Question 3.3. If so, has the data on gender equality allocations been published in a timely manner? (Yes=1/No=0)
Scoring: A country will be considered to satisfy each criterion as follows:
- A country will satisfy Criterion 1 if it answers “Yes” to 2 out of 3 questions in Criterion 1
- A country will satisfy Criterion 2 if it answers “Yes” to 4 out of 7 questions in Criterion 2
- A country will satisfy Criterion 3 if it answers “Yes” to 2 out of 3 questions in Criterion 3
Each question within each criterion has the same weight. A country would need to satisfy the threshold of “yes” responses per criterion to satisfy a criterion.
Countries then will be classified as ‘fully meets requirements’ if they satisfy criterion 1,2 and 3, ‘approaches requirements’ if the satisfy any one criterion, and ‘does not meet requirements’ if they fulfill none of the criterion.
Comments and limitations: The indicator does not measure allocation of resources but the existence of mechanisms to track resource allocations and that make that information available publicly. However, there is an optional question in the questionnaire (not scored) that requests countries to report the percentage of the government budget allocated for gender equality programs.
Another limitation is that the indicator, which is process oriented, does not provide data on the adequacy or quality of resource allocations.
Data Source: Data for this indicator was primarily collected from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Open SDG Data Hub. National level data is provided to the United Nations Statistics Division by the respective nation, unless otherwise noted. To learn more about the data used in this portal, visit the about page.
Data is accurate as of January 17, 2020
5.c.1 Proportion of Nations with Systems to Track and Make Public Allocations for Gender Equity and Women’s Empowerment in the Sustainable Development Goals
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5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
While the world has achieved progress towards gender equality and women’s empowerment under the Millennium Development Goals (including equal access to primary education between girls and boys), women and girls continue to suffer discrimination and violence in every part of the world.
Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world.
Providing women and girls with equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes will fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large.