8.2.1 Annual Growth Rate of Real GDP (Per Employed Person)
Target 8.2: Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
Custodian Organization: International Labour Organization (ILO)
Tier Classification: Tier I
To facilitate the implementation of the global indicator framework, all indicators are classified by the IAEG-SDGs (Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goals Indicators) into three tiers on the basis of their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level, as follows:
Tier I: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.
Tier II: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data are not regularly produced by countries.
Tier III: No internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.
Definition: Annual growth rate of real GDP per employed person conveys the annual percentage change in real Gross Domestic Product per employed person.
Rationale: The real GDP per employed person being a measure of labour productivity, this indicator represents a measure of labour productivity growth, thus providing information on the evolution, efficiency and quality of human capital in the production process.
Economic growth in a country can be ascribed either to increased employment or to more effective work by those who are employed. This indicator casts light on the latter effect, being therefore a key measure of economic performance. Labour productivity (and growth) estimates can support the formulation of labour market policies and monitor their effects. They can also contribute to the understanding of how labour market performance affects living standards.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): It is the main measure of national output, representing the total value of all final goods and services within the System of National Accounts (SNA) production boundary produced in a particular economy (that is, the dollar value of all goods and services within the SNA production boundary produced within a country’s borders in a given year). According to the SNA, “GDP is the sum of gross value added of all resident producer units plus that part (possibly the total) of taxes on products, less subsidies on products, that is not included in the valuation of output … GDP is also equal to the sum of the final uses of goods and services (all uses except intermediate consumption) measured at purchasers’ prices, less the value of imports of goods and services GDP is also equal to the sum of primary incomes distributed by resident producer units.”
Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Real GDP refers to GDP calculated at constant prices, that is, the volume level of GDP, excluding the effect of inflation and favouring comparisons of quantities beyond price changes. Constant price estimates of GDP are calculated by expressing values in terms of a base period. In theory, the price and quantity components of a value are identified and the price in the base period is substituted for that in the current period.
Employed persons: Persons of working age (usually defined as persons aged 15 and above) who, during a short reference period such as a week, performed work for others in exchange for pay or profit (as stated in the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization adopted by the 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians).
Comments and limitations: Output measures are obtained from national accounts and represent, as much as possible, GDP at market prices for the aggregate economy. However, despite common principles that are mostly based on the United Nations System of National Accounts, there are still significant problems in international consistency of national accounts estimates, based on factors such as differences in the treatment of output in services sectors, differences in methods used to correct output measures for price changes (in particular, the use of different weighting systems to obtain deflators) and differences in the degree of coverage of informal economic activities.
Data on employment used in the denominator of this indicator refer, as much as possible, to the average number of persons with one or more paid jobs during the year. That is, the reliability of the employment data is also dependent on the degree of coverage of informal activities by the statistical source used.
Data Source: Data for this indicator was primarily collected from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Open SDG Data Hub. National level data is provided to the United Nations Statistics Division by the respective nation, unless otherwise noted. To learn more about the data used in this portal, visit the about page.
Data is accurate as of January 17, 2020
8.2.1 Annual Growth Rate of Real GDP (Per Employed Person) Sustainable Development Goals
8. Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all
Roughly half the world’s population still lives on the equivalent of about US$2 a day. And in too many places, having a job doesn’t guarantee the ability to escape from poverty. This slow and uneven progress requires us to rethink and retool our economic and social policies aimed at eradicating poverty.
A continued lack of decent work opportunities, insufficient investments and under-consumption lead to an erosion of the basic social contract underlying democratic societies: that all must share in progress. . The creation of quality jobs will remain a major challenge for almost all economies well beyond 2015.
Sustainable economic growth will require societies to create the conditions that allow people to have quality jobs that stimulate the economy while not harming the environment. Job opportunities and decent working conditions are also required for the whole working age population.
Related 8.2.1 Annual Growth Rate of Real GDP (Per Employed Person)Targets
Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors