Description
Maps
SDGs
Select Year Range:

9.5.2 Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per Million Inhabitants

Target 9.5: Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending

Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Custodian Organization: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Tier Classification: Tier I

To facilitate the implementation of the global indicator framework, all indicators are classified by the IAEG-SDGs (Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goals Indicators) into three tiers on the basis of their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level, as follows:

Tier I: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.

Tier II: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data are not regularly produced by countries.

Tier III: No internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.

Source: United Nations Statistical Division

Definition: The researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants is a direct measure of the number of research and development workers per 1 million people. Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge. They conduct research and improve or develop concepts, theories, models, techniques instrumentation, software or operational methods.
Concepts: The OECD Frascati Manual (OECD, 2015) provides the relevant definitions for research and experimental development, gross domestic expenditure on R&D and researchers. Although an OECD manual, the application is global. During the 6th revision of the Frascati Manual, developing country issues were mainstreamed in the core of the Manual. The 7th edition was released in October 2015.
The following definitions, taken from the 2015 edition of the Frascati Manual are relevant for computing the indicator.
Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in
order to increase the stock of knowledge–including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge.

Rationale: The indicator is a direct measure of the number of research and development workers per 1 million people referred to in the target.

Limitations: R&D data need to be collected through surveys, which are expensive, and are not done on a regular basis in many developing countries. Furthermore, (developing) countries do not always cover all sectors of performance. In particular the business sector is not always covered.

Source: United Nations Statistical Division

Data Source: Data for this indicator was primarily collected from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Open SDG Data Hub. National level data is provided to the United Nations Statistics Division by the respective nation, unless otherwise noted. To learn more about the data used in this portal, visit the about page.

Data is accurate as of October 31, 2018.

 
Loading

9.5.2 Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per Million Inhabitants in the Sustainable Development Goals

Click on the SDG to reveal more information

9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Investments in infrastructure – transport, irrigation, energy and information and communication technology – are crucial to achieving sustainable development and empowering communities in many countries. It has long been recognized that growth in productivity and incomes, and improvements in health and education outcomes require investment in infrastructure.

Inclusive and sustainable industrial development is the primary source of income generation, allows for rapid and sustained increases in living standards for all people, and provides the technological solutions to environmentally sound industrialization.

Technological progress is the foundation of efforts to achieve environmental objectives, such as increased resource and energy-efficiency. Without technology and innovation, industrialization will not happen, and without industrialization, development will not happen.

Related 9.5.2 Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per Million Inhabitants Targets

9.5

Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending